Scientific Literature

We have compiled a short list of scientific articles, book chapters etc that pertain to leopard seals.  In some cases the reference may be specifically about leopard seals, but in others there may just be a passing comment.

This is by no means a complete list.  We are also aware that there are likely to be a number of non-English sources.  Should you know of publications (in any language) that are not on this list, please contact us so we can add them to a comprehensive bibliography that we are currently preparing.  Thank you.

See our News & Radio page for popular style information


Ainley, D. G., Ballard, G., Karl, B. J., & Dugger, K. M. (2005). Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science, 17(3), 335-340. doi:10.1017/S0954102005002750

Boveng, P. L., Hiruki, L. M., Schwartz, M. K., & Bengtson, J. L. (1998). Population growth of Antarctic fur seals; Limitation by a top predator, the Leopard seal? Ecology, 79(8), 2863-2877.

Dawson, E. W. (1974). Adelíe penguins and leopard seals: Illustrations of predation – History, legend and fact. Notornis, 21(1), 36-69.

Goebel, M. E., Perryman, W. L., Hinke, J. T., Krause, D. J., Hann, N. A., Gardner, S., & LeRoi, D. J. (2015). A small unmanned aerial system for estimating abundance and size of Antarctic predators. Polar Biology, 1625(014), s00300-00014-01625-00304. doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1625-4

Goodall, R. N. P., & Schiavaini, A. C. M. (1987). Focas Antarcticas halladas en las costas de Tierra del Fuego. Paper presented at the Anais da 2a reuniao de trabaiho de especialistas en mamiferos acuáticos da américa do sul, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  4-8 August 1986.

Gray, J. E. (1873). List of seals, whales, and dolphins of New Zealand. (Article XVI), 87-89.

Harcourt, R. G. (2001). Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 31(1), 135-160.

Hiruki, L. M., Schwartz, M. K., & Boveng, P. L. (1999). Hunting and social behaviour of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Seal Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 249, 97-109.

Junin, M., & Castello, H. P. (1995). Osteomyelitis of the skull in a leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx. Marine Mammal Science, 11(3), 403-406.

Kingdon, J. (1977). East African mammals: an atlas of evolution Carnivores (pp. viii + 475). London: Academic Press.

Kooyman, G. L. (1965). Leopard seals of Cape Crozier. Animals, 6, 59-63.

Muir, S. F., Barnes, D. K. A., & Reid, K. (2006). Interactions between humans and leopard seals.

Müller-Schwarze, D., & Müller-Schwarze, C. (1975). Relations between leopard seals and Adélie penguins. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions du Conseil Permanent International pour l’Exploration de la Mer. 169, 394-404.

Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker’s Mammals of the world (Sixth ed. Vol. I). Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.  Leopard seal section p 873-874.

Penney, R. L., & Lowry, G. (1967). Leopard seal predation of Adelie penguins. Ecology, 48(5), 878-882.

Reddacliff, G. (1988). Crater wounds in marine mammals. In M. L. Augee (Ed.), Marine Mammals of Australasia.  Field biology and captive management (pp. 133-134). Sydney, Australia: Royal Zoological Socitey, New South Wales.

Rogers, T. L., & Bryden, M. M. (1995). Predation of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) by leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 1001-1004.

Rogers, T. L., & Bryden, M. M. (1997). Density and haul-out behavior of leopoard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Marine Mammal Science, 13(2), 293-302.

Rogers, T. L., Cato, D. H., & Bryden, M. M. (1996). Behavioral significance of underwater vocalizations of captive leopard seals, Hydrurga leptonyx. Marine Mammal Science, 12(3), 414-427.

Shepherdson, D. J., Mellen, J. D., & Hutchins, M. (1999). Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals Smithsonian Institution Press.

Siniff, D. B., & Bengston, J. L. (1977). Observations and hypotheses concerning the interactions among crabeater seals, leopard seals, and killer whales. Journal of Mammalogy, 58, 414-416.

Sleptsov, M. M. (1965). The killer whales of the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammals, a collection of articles (pp. 60-64): Izdatelstvo Nauka.

Stirling, I., & Thomas, J. A. (2003). Relationships between underwater vocalizations and mating systems in phocid seals. Aquatic Mammals, 29(2), 227-246.

Visser, I. N., Smith, T. G., Bullock, I. D., Green, G. D., Carlsson, O. G. L., & Imberti, S. (2008). Antarctic Peninsula killer whales (Orcinus orca) hunt seals and a penguin on floating ice. Marine Mammal Science, 24(1), 225-234. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00163.x

Walker, T. R., Boyd, I. L., McCafferty, D., Huin, N., Taylor, R. I., & Reid, K. (1998). Seasonal occurrence and diet of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Bird Island, South Georgia. Antarctic Science, 10, 75-81.